India on developing vaccine – effectiveness & ingredients

India on developing vaccine – effectiveness & ingredients

Dr Sanjay Agrawal
Wednesday, May 19, 2021, 08:00 Hrs  [IST]
Second wave of Covid-19 pandemic has made the world under tremendous pressure once again. The world has geared up a step further with the vaccination but how does it really affecting to save lives is still a question to all!  India is eagerly anticipating all of the post-vaccine side effects that are currently making the news. The world’s biggest coronavirus immunization campaign has led to the suspension of AstraZeneca shots in many countries due to the possibility of blood clots, agreeing by the top medical experts. Both Covishield and Covaxin’s side effects are continuously monitored by the panels.

Covaxin is a dormant vaccine that is premeditated to destroy the Covid virus and is safe to administer into the body. India’s National Institute of Virology isolates the samples. When the activated immune cell is really able to identify the lethal virus, the immune system can quickly produce anti-biotics to combat the contagion virus outbreak.

Dating back to FDA approval, the vaccines were subjected to the same strict safety checks and efficacy requirements as all other vaccines. Healthcare workers on the front lines of patient care have also started receiving vaccines. There are several stories circulating online that the vaccine is dangerous and ineffective. To really be honest, this isn’t even close to being real. The vaccine is made up of effective ingredients that keep the human healthy and stable.

Ingredients used in vaccine preparation
The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines are the only Covid-19 messenger-Ribonucleic acids (mRNA) vaccines officially approved for emergency use in the United States. Inactivated pathogens are used in traditional vaccines to elicit an immune response.

The Covid-19 mRNA vaccinations, on the other hand, took a unique approach. mRNA has been delivered into our cells to essentially provide genetic guidance for our cells to “momentarily” produce a “unique” viral protein, which activates an immune response.

The following ingredients make up the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine:
mRNA known as messenger ribonucleic acid. It is the vaccine’s only active component. The mRNA molecules are formed genetic information that gives our bodies instructions. It’s critical to understand how to create a viral protein that triggers an immune response in our bodies. If we are exposed to Covid-19, the immune response causes our bodies to produce antibodies that protect us from infection.

Another latest Covid vaccine is Lipids. The main aim is to secure the mRNA while also delivering a “greasy” exterior that allows the mRNA to glide within the cells for maximum strength.
•    1, 2-Distearoyl-snglycero-3-phosphocholine
•    (4-hydroxybutyl)azanediyl)bis(hexane-6,1-diyl)bis
•    (2-hexyldecanoate), 2 [(polyethylene glycol)-2000]-N, N-ditetradecylacetamide
•    cholesterol
Salts as a component of the Pfizer, vaccine helps to regulate the body’s acidity.
•    dibasic sodium phosphate dehydrate
•    sodium chloride
•    monobasic potassium phosphate
•    potassium chloride

The new Covid vaccine contains sugar, also known as sucrose. These molecules keep their form while they are frozen.

These ingredients are used in the Moderna Covid-19 Vaccine is very safe. The remaining components, included are acids, acid stabilizers, salt, and sugar, work together to keep the vaccine stable after it is manufactured. The ingredients are: acids; acid stabilizers; tromethamine & tromethamine hydrochloride; acetic acid; sucrose; salts; sodium acetate and sugar.

Getting the vaccine and staying healthy from Covid-19 is perfectly harmless. The SARS-CoV-2 protein will not make you sick or nauseated. The virus does its job and then vanishes with the passage of time. There will always be a focus on protection. To be frank, when you develop a vaccine for the market, you have complete control over how viruses evolve and produce proteins.

Immune cells will still be recognized with the deadly virus after administration, causing the body to produce antibodies against both the pandemic virus. The weekend strains of the common cold, known as Adenovirus from Chimpanzees, are used to create the Covishield. It has been altered to resemble a corona. The efficacy of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine has been seen in international clinical trials to be 90% when people are given a half dose and then a full dose.

There is insufficient evidence to support the half-dose, full-dose concept. According to some unpublished results, a longer delay between the first and second doses would improve the overall efficacy of the vaccine. The vaccines would be found to be 70% active after the first dosage in one sub-group.

Most vaccinations are linked to protection. What you see – and the immune response is all linked to or predicts. It’s a question of whether you’ll be immune or not!  Throughout the precedent times, most vaccines, such as those for measles, hepatitis B, and seasonal flu, had strong antibody responses. It was linked to the feeling of being safe. The vaccine will produce neutralizing antibodies in reaction to the virus, preventing it from infecting the cell

Currently, in India, the situation turned to be hard in 2021 with the sudden surge of the Covid-19 Cases. It is estimated around 22 662,410 cases, where recovery rate is 18,665,266 and death is around 246,146.  Regarding the vaccines, India has administered around 160 million dosages of the coronavirus vaccine that is predominately shot; being used is the AstraZeneca shot is locally produced as Covishield and an indigenous vaccine that is called Covaxin that Bharat Biotech developed.

From May onwards, the vaccine is now available for people below 45 years. The issue that has created a lot of surges is the shortage of vaccines. India is experiencing a devastating second wave, while shortage remains a matter of concern for all! The vaccination program is largely struggling to make an impact, and supplies are largely problematic. Although the country having being halted vaccine exports in March are, so that focuses on domestic inoculations.  Although the commitment was made to channelize vaccines among all is not yet to be deployed. Around 30 million people have to get second dosage of the vaccine in India is pending.  

The planning of the vaccine supplies is not yet assured and needs confirmation for the opening of the vaccine for 940 million people.  Importing the vaccine in India made from the Russian vaccine for the DCGI, a green signal is observed. Dr Reddy’s co-chairman and MD, GV Prasad, has partnered with the interim safety and immunogenicity data from phase II/III clinical trials to submit the safety data on the Russian made Sputnik V vaccine with the due analysis of the 15 days and the completion of the ongoing clinical trial in the country.  

The company presented comparative phase III immunogenicity data of the vaccine produced in Indian and Russian studies- in terms of s-antibody, virus neutralization, cellular response, etc. The unblinded data of serious adverse events and RT-PCR positive cases continues. A lot to lot consistency data concerning clinical trial outcomes from Russian clinical trials and package insert (PI), and factsheet of consistency data of the vaccine generated in Indian and Russian studies in terms of (SmPC).

The committee noted that the firm’s protection and immunogenicity data from the Indian study are comparable to the interim data from the ongoing phase III clinical trial in Russia. Dr Reddy’s has teamed up with the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) to import and distribute the vaccine in India, which was authorized for emergency use by the DCGI this month. The authorized vaccine must be of 0.5ml each dosage to be injected 21 days, to be kept at a store of -18 degree Celsius.  

As per Dr Reddy’s, the company has rolled out the Sputnik V vaccine by May end or early of June. The vaccine production will be likely be continued in India in May to go up to 50 million dosages as committed by the Bala Venkatesh Varma, Indian Ambassador to Russia.  

To conclude, there is no doubt about the vaccine that is made in India. What really matters is the process of taking active care of yourself, and believes in staying good. Vaccines are largely available as per age. Getting yourself vaccinated is an ideal way of responding to the disease to beat it.