Diabetes and Antioxidants

Diabetes and Antioxidants

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a rapidly increasing prevalence1 highlighting the importance of continued research and the need for novel methods to both prevent and treat this pandemic. Although obesity and physical inactivity are known to be major risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM by increasing insulin resistance or impairing insulin secretion.2
While diabetes management has largely focused on control of hyperglycemia, the rising burden of this disease is mainly correlated to its vascular complications. This is reflected by a 4-fold increase in the incidence of coronary artery disease, a 10-fold increase in peripheral vascular disease, and a 3- to 4-fold higher mortality rate with as much as 75% of diabetics ultimately dying from vascular disease.3 Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, the question of whether antioxidants could have a beneficial effect on reducing the risk of these conditions, especially cardiovascular disease, has been intensively investigated, but the results remain inconclusive. If antioxidants play a protective role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, understanding the physiological status of antioxidant concentrations among people at high risk for developing these conditions, such as people with the metabolic syndrome, is of interest.

What Does Mold Have to Do With Diabetes?

Nothing. Mold has nothing to do with the direct cause of diabetes. It does, however, provide an early warning sign to diabetics who aren’t properly monitoring their blood-sugar levels and those who aren’t even aware that they have diabetes.

Mold, an opportunistic fungus that generally wreaks havoc on the human body, is finally— in a rare act of consequential benevolence—proving to be useful. The mere fact that mold thrives on organic material, especially organic material that consists of sugar, is precisely why it is important to observe its presence and whereabouts—not just to remove and prevent it but to gain a glimpse of our own state of health.

Many mold victims complain of mold growing in their clothing and in their toilet bowl. This mold can appear fuzzy, slimy, and gray, black, or brown in color. While this can easily occur from infrequent washing and sanitation of either the person, the clothing, or the toilet bowl, and is also a sign of an overall mold infestation throughout the home, it is a major indication of blood-sugar levels in the sweat and urine of the individual.

If the body is overwhelmed by glucose, it will attempt to flush as much of the excess out of its system by means of sweat, exhalation, and urination. It is quite plausible that the mold found in your clothing or in your toilet bowl is a sign that your body is truly suffering from an abundance of glucose and needs help. It’s a commonly overlooked correlation, but it has the potential to save your life.

Diabetes & Oxidative stress

A number of complications arise as a consequence of macro and microvascular complications that result from diabetes; these deficits have a central role in the tissue-damaging effects of chronic hyperglycemia. Since endothelial cells (as well as renal mesangial and Schwann cells) are unable to limit glucose transport as well as other cells do, they are more vulnerable to the toxic effects of hyperglycemia.

Oxidative stress results from an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging systems, i.e. increased free radical production or reduced activity of antioxidant defenses or both. Hyperglycemia- induced oxidative stress has also been associated with increased endothelial cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Several studies have shown that diabetes mellitus (types 1 and

2) is accompanied by increased formation of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity, leading to oxidative damage of cell components.

Decreased antioxidant defenses

Cells have evolved highly complex enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems, which work synergistically, and in combination with each other, to protect the body against free radical-induced damage.

There are several lines of evidence to suggest that pressure control, management of besides these antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant defences may be lower dyslipidemia, and optimal glucose which guarantees health benefits in diabetes. These include reports control.7 associated with its consumption. of reduced plasma/serum total Generally, the antioxidant Over the past decade, evidence has antioxidant status or free radical accumulated that plant polyphenols pharmacotherapy can be divided scavenging activity and increased are an important class of defense in the use of antioxidant enzyme plasma oxidisability in type 2 antioxidants. These compounds and substrates, biogenic elements, diabetics, together with reduced are widespread virtually in all
combined drugs, synthetic levels of specific antioxidants such plant foods, often at high levels,antioxidants, and drugs with as ascorbic acid and vitamin E. and include phenols, phenolic antioxidant activity. There are
In addition, the activities of the acids, and flavonoids.  also a large number of natural antioxidant enzymes catalase, In a prospective cohort study, cellular defense mechanisms as superoxide dismutase, and the naturally existing antioxidant vitamin C intake was found to glutathione peroxidase have been components, which neutralizes be significantly lower among described as reduced in diabetics. free radical damage. The incident cases of T2DM. In three A diminution in the endothelial enzymatic antioxidant systems, prospective observational studies, synthesis of NO has also been such as copper, zinc, manganese serum α-tocopherol levels were suggested in type 2 diabetics, superoxide dismutase, gluthatione associated with lower risk of which apart from detracting from peroxidase, gluthathione reductase, type T1DM or T2DM. In another vascular antioxidant defense, and catalase may remove the ROS prospective study cohort of more would of course compound any directly or sequentially, preventing than 4000 non -diabetic subjects defect in the anti-atherogenic their excessive accumulation and over 23 years, vitamin E intake signaling role. consequent adverse effects. Non- was significantly associated with In patients with T2DM, the enzymatic antioxidant systems a reduced risk of T2DM. content of oxidized fatty acids consist of scavenging molecules However, despite observational
is increased, and the anti- that are endogenously produced studies suggesting an association inflammatory and antioxidant such as glutathione, ubichinol, between antioxidant vitamin activities of HDLs are impaired.5 and uric acid or derivatives intake and reduced cardiovascular Antioxidant therapy & of the diet such as vitamins C risk, this has not been borne out Diabetes and E, carotenoids, lipoic acid, in interventional trials. Studies
The inhibition of intracellular selenium, etc.8 Exercise training of the effect of ascorbic acid free radical formation would results in an up-regulation of and tocopherol on endothelial provide a therapeutic strategy antioxidant defense mechanisms dysfunction in T2DM have yielded to prevent oxidative stress and in various tissues, presumably due mixed results.18 the related diabetic vascular to increased levels of oxidative Coenzyme Q or ubiquinone stress that occurs during exercise.9 complications. Antioxidants may may decrease oxidative stress act at different levels, inhibiting Well -established antioxidants not only by quenching reactive
the formation of ROS or scavenge derived from the diet are vitamins oxidant species but also by
free radicals, or increase the C, E, A, and carotenoids, which ‘recoupling’ mitochondrial
antioxidants defense enzyme have been studied intensively. In oxidative phosphorylation,
capabilities. Supplementation general, exogenous antioxidants thereby reducing superoxide
with antioxidants and/or factors can compensate for the lower production. Alpha-lipoic acid, a
essential to nitric oxide (NO) plasma antioxidant levels often critical co-factor for mitochondrial
production may potentially observed in T2DM and in pre- dehydrogenase reactions, is
improve endothelial dysfunction diabetic individuals, whether their another compound with free
in T2DM by re-coupling eNOS diabetes is primarily genetic in radical-scavenging activity. Lipoic
and mitochondrial function, as origin or due to obesity and a acid was found to increase glucose
well as decreasing vascular NAD sedentary lifestyle.10 Vitamin C transport in muscle cells in culture
(P)H oxidase activity.6 However, (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E by stimulating translocation of
in the case of macrovascular/ (tocopherol) have well-described GLUT4 from internal pools to
microvascular complications, antioxidant properties. Vegetables the plasma membrane. In cultured
the antioxidant therapy is and fruits have in their natural adipocytes, treatment with
beneficial together with blood composition other substances lipoic acid protected the insulin