Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a rapidly increasing prevalence highlighting the importance
of continued research and need for novel methods to both prevent and treat this pandemic. Although
obesity and physical inactivity are known to be major risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), recent evidence
suggests that oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of T2DM by increasing insulin resistance or
impairing insulin secretion. While diabetes management has largely focused on control of hyperglycaemia, the
rising burden of this disease is mainly correlated to its vascular complications. This is reflected by a four-fold
increase in the incidence of coronary artery disease, a tenfold increase in peripheral vascular disease, and a three to four-fold higher mortality rate with as much as 75 per cent of diabetics ultimately dying from vascular disease.
Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Consequently, the question of whether antioxidants could have a beneficial effect on reducing the risk of these conditions, especially cardiovascular disease, has been intensively investigated, but the results remain inconclusive. If antioxidants play a protective role in the pathophysiology of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, understanding the physiological status of antioxidant concentrations among people at high risk for developing these conditions, such as people with metabolic syndrome, is of interest.